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Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a launch point for further algorithm development. You gain an in-depth understanding of key target location methods that you can effectively apply to your work in the field. You discover triangulation algorithms that offer a highly efficient way to geolocate targets when the real estate on the sensor systems is adequate to support an antenna array. The book also presents quadratic geolocation techniques that can be implemented with extremely modest antennas - frequently a single dipole or monopole. Moreover, this authoritative volume details methods for geolocating the source of high frequency signals with a single sensor site.
Introduction to Emitter Geolocation - Gradient Decent Algorithm. Triangulation - Basic Concepts. The Discrete Probability Density Method. Least Squares Estimation. Generalized Bearings. Kalman Filter Methods. Maximum Likelihood LOB Algorithm. Minimum Mean Square Error. Multiple Sample Correlation. Combining Noisy LOB Measure Measurements. Sources of Error in Triangulation. Observability Requirements for Geolocation and Tracking. DF Techniques - Array Processing Direction of Arrival Measurement Methods. Other Methods of Estimating the AOA. MSE Phase Interferometer. DF with a Butler Matrix. Phase Difference Estimation Using SAW Devices. MUSIC - Overview. Array Processing Data Model. Subspace Based Methods. Performance of MUSIC in the Presence of Modeling Errors. Determining the Number of Wavefields. Effect of Phase Errors on the Accuracy of MUSIC. Other Superresolution Algorithms. Quadratic Position Fixing Methods - TDOA Position Fixing Techniques. Differential Doppler. Range Difference Methods. Time Delay Estimation - System Overview. Cross Correlation. Generalized Cross Correlation. Estimating the Time Delay with the Generalized Correlation Method. Time Delay Estimation Using the Phase of the Cross Spectral Density. Effects of Frequency and Pahse Errors in EW TDOA Direction Finding. Single Site Location Techniques - HF Signal Propagation. Single Site Location. Determining the TDOA with the Cepstrum. Passive SSL. MUSIC Cepstrum SSL. Earth Curvature. Lateral Deviations. Ray Tracing. Accuracy Comparison of SSL and Triangulation for Ionospherically Propagated Signals. Appendixes: Grassmann Algebra. Nonlinear Programming Algorithms.